Response Times

Response Times

Response times for creates & writes are largely dependent on the base chain.

Overview

Tableland tables are created or written to in three primary steps:

  1. On-chain contract interaction, which creates a transaction via the contract method called. This transaction is pending and not “finalized” in a block, yet.
  2. Upon transaction confirmation, an event with SQL instructions is emitted.
  3. Upon the event emittance, the Tableland network listens to, processes, and then materializes the SQL instructions (validate syntax, access controls, etc.).
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Since the first step is a direct contract interaction, this means that a transaction must be created and included in a finalized block before Tableland can process the SQL instructions accordingly. Tableland leverages the base chain’s consensus and execution and is, thus, dependent on how quickly the base chain’s speed and throughput.

Note that a smart contract interaction for write queries simply passes the statement as calldata and is not stored as a state variable. Event logs from the chain provide this history so that Tableland table state can be recreated by anyone by the base chain’s inherent design. Table creation involves, essentially, the same steps; the only difference is that a table create does alter a state variable for tracking the table’s unique table identifier upon minting / creating the table.

Once the first step is complete, an event is emitted and processed by the Tableland network. This happens in a matter of milliseconds and is negligible as compared to the chain-dependent transaction inclusion step.

Chain Dependent “Lag”

In the steps outlined above, the first one is crucial to understand. Every chain is going to process a transaction with varying speeds. As with any blockchain, usage can also affect the speed at which a transaction is included in a block. in times of high congestion, the “average” time for transaction inclusion can be much slower than at times of low congestion.

To help paint the picture, the following outlines average block inclusion times by chain:

Chain
Average Block Finalization Time
Ethereum
13.5 seconds
Optimism
5 seconds
Arbitrum
5 seconds
Polygon
≤2 seconds

Thus, when a table is created or written to, there will be a “lag” between calling the smart contract and the time at which the data is materialized in Tableland. Once a transaction is included in a finalized block, an event is emitted, and the Tableland network of nodes process the SQL instructions in, on average, ≤ 2 ms.

Gateway Response

Read query latency will vary by location and should broken into two components: a validator node and a gateway. As noted, at the validator level, the execution time is (on average) ≤ 2 ms. Each validator will ultimately choose if and how to implement its own gateway, but let's use the primary Tableland hosted gateway as a reference point.

Based on current usage patterns, the gateway response latency can range from ~10 ms to ~200 ms, depending on the geographical location, with an average of ≤ 100 ms. In the future, Tableland plans on adding additional scaling support to the gateway as the network grows to help ensure response time variance by location is minimized.

For context, the gateway uses Cloudflare for caching requests.